The costs of clinical research are increasing due to multiple troubling trends. One of the most prevalent is the expanding cost of research and development for new drugs before they even hit the market. For example, a 2012 article in Nature reported that for every billion dollars spent, the number of new drugs brought to market has decreased by half every nine years for the past fifty years . A major component of this rising cost is the fact that 95% of the experimental medicines are either ineffective or unsafe for general usage. Despite the high failure rate, there is no good way to rule out drugs expect through expensive studies involving animal and human subjects. Even if a drug passes this rigorous testing, its use may not provide greater economic benefits to the companies that produce them or even to the patients themselves. “Most new drugs are only incremental advances,” says Dr. Joel Lexchin, a professor at York University's School of Health Policy and Management, in Toronto, Ontario .
A second factor that contributes to the rising costs is the increasing need to collect more clinical data. Newer well-meaning regulations stipulate more through and more prolonged saftey testing during clinical trials. As a result, the clinical trials--especially for drugs attempting to alleviate chronic diseases--tend to be complex and sometimes prohibitively expensive. There are also increased costs from a greater emphasis on data and site monitoring and the use of expensive technologies such as MRI . It is simply more expensive to meet the necessary data demand.